Table 4

Univariate and multivariate cox proportional-hazards models for glioblastomas

VariableHazard ratio (95% CI)
Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtypeGlioblastoma, IDH-mutant
UnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariate
Age at diagnosis11.018 (1.007–1.03)1.012 (0.999–1.025)1.012 (0.985–1.041)
Sex
 FemaleReferenceReference
 Male1.052 (0.794–1.393)1.208 (0.584–2.499)
MGMT
 UnmethylatedReferenceReference
 Methylated0.938 (0.706–1.246)0.858 (0.424–1.739)
 KPS_PRE20.987 (0.967–1.007)0.96 (0.908–1.015)
 KPS_POST30.962 (0.949–0.975)0.975 (0.959–0.991)*0.965 (0.934–0.998)
Resection rate
 Total resectionReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Subtotal resection2.269 (1.646–3.127)2.074 (1.468–2.929)*1.814 (0.804–4.093)1.771 (0.726–4.319)
 Major partial resection7.259 (4.677–11.267)5.598 (3.469–9.033)*30.002 (6.037–149.107)66.577 (9.7–456.942)*
 Partial resection84.175 (41.344–171.378)76.094 (30.649–188.918)*99.335 (20.047–492.219)361.066 (37.041–3519.607)*
Radiotherapy
 Not receivedReferenceReference
 Received0.582 (0.396–0.854)0.771 (0.315–1.888)
Chemotherapy
 Not receivedReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Received0.297 (0.198–0.447)0.42 (0.271–0.652)*0.279 (0.113–0.691)0.309 (0.115–0.829)*

1The hazard ratio is for each 1-yr increase in age. 2The hazard ratio is for each 1 point increase in KPS score. 3The hazard ratio is for each 1 point increase in KPS score. The P value of the hazard ratio was less than 0.1 for the univariate Cox models and included in the multivariate Cox model.*The hazard ratio was significant (P < 0.05).