Table 3

Examples of methods for monitoring pyroptosis

Pyroptosis mechanismDetectionReference
Caspase-3/GSDMECell swelling with large bubbles23
Cleavage of GSDME
GSDME-mediated pore formation (liposome leakage method)
ATP cell viability
LDH release
PI/FITC staining
GZMB/(Caspase-3)/GSDMEThe changes in cell morphology53
Cleavage of GSDME
LDH, HMGB1 release
SYTOX green uptake
The use of zDEVD-fmk or zVAD-fmk to inhibit apoptosis and caspase-3-mediated pyroptosis
GZMA/GSDMBThe changes in cell morphology51
Cleavage of GSDMB
Edman sequencing of the N termini to identify the cleavage sites
ATP–based cell viability LDH release
PI/FITC staining
Hypoxia/TNF-α/GSDMCCell swelling with large bubbles50
Cleavage of GSDMC
Liposome leakage method
Cell death determined by LDH release
SYTOX green staining