The incidence of pseudoprogression in published clinical trials and retrospective studies

AuthorImmunotherapy agentsNo. of
evaluated patients
No. of
pseudoprogression patients
Rate (%)Evaluation criteria
Wolchok et al.19Ipilimumab227229.69WHO/irRC
O'Day et al.20Ipilimumab155127.74mWHO/irRC
Di Giacomo et al.21Ipilimumab2727.41mWHO
Ribas et al.22Tremelimumab3612.78RECIST v1.0
Millward et al.23Tremelimumab and toll-like receptor-9 agonist1616.25RECIST v1.0
Topalian et al.24Nivolumab10743.74RECIST v1.0
Weber et al.25Nivolumab120108.33RECIST v1.1
Robert et al.26Nivolumab206178.25RECIST v1.1
Hodi et al.18Pembrolizumab327247.34RECIST v1.1
Nishino et al.27Pembrolizumab10743.74irRECIST
Gettinger et al.28Nivolumab12964.65RECIST v1.0
Borghaei et al.29Nivolumab287165.57RECIST v1.1
Gettinger et al.30Nivolumab5235.77RECIST v1.1
Fujimoto et al.31Nivolumab542142.58RECIST v1.1
Kim et al.32Anti PD-1/PD-L1/CTLA-4 antibody4124.88RECIST v1.1/irRC
Katz et al.33Anti PD-L1 antibody16631.81RECIST v1.1
Tazdait et al.34Anti PD-L1/PD-1 antibody16085.00RECIST v1.1
McDermott et al.35Nivolumab3438.82RECIST v1.0
McDermott et al.36Atezolizumab7022.86RECIST v1.1/irRC
Urothelial carcinoma
Powles et al.37Atezolizumab6711.49RECIST v1.1
Rosenberg et al.38Atezolizumab310216.77RECIST v1.1 /imRECIST
Massard et al.39Durvalumab4237.14RECIST v1.1
Uveal melanoma
Danielli et al.40Ipilimumab9111.11mWHO
Seiwert et al.41Pembrolizumab5611.79RECIST v1.1
Merkel cell carcinoma
Kaufman et al.42Avelumab8811.14RECIST v1.1
Calabro et al.43Tremelimumab2926.90RECIST v1.1/irRC
Multiple cancer type
Topalian et al.44Nivolumab23683.39RECIST v1.0

NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; RCC, renal cell carcinoma; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell cancer.