Table 1

The type and definition of nutritional intervention regimens

Intervening regimen



Intermittent energy restriction

Restricting energy intake to 60%–75% below energy requirements for short periods, followed by periods with normal energy intake [e.g., the 5:2 diet (consisting of 5 days of libitum feeding and 2 days of a very-low-calorie diet per week)]


Short-term intermittent fasting

Temporarily fasting (water only), typically for a period between 24 and 48 h


Fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)

A plant based, calorie-restricted, low sugar, low protein, and high-fat dietary composition administered cyclically and alternated with refeeding periods sufficient to prevent or minimize lean body mass loss


Calorie restriction (CR)

A dietary strategy usually based on decreasing the calorie intake (about 20%–40% of the ad libitum diet) without challenging the intake of essential nutrients


Ketogenic diet

An ultra-low carbohydrate diet that does not directly restrict calories or require periods of fasting. Successful generation of ketone bodies can suppress appetite and reduce plasma glucose concentrations in cancer-free individuals


Long-term intermittent fasting

With durations between 5 and 21 days can be successfully repeated in the course of a year