Table 1

Methods proposed for reprogramming the tumor microenvironment

Cancer type/modelMethodsReferences
Breast cancerTreatment of MSCs with eicosapentanoic acid106
Encapsulation of MSCs with sodium alginate107
Prostate cancerExtended passaging of CAFs108
Elimination of tumor immunosuppressive cells with chimeric protein IL2-R336A109
Lung cancerMSCs loading with the photosensitizer MnO2@Ce6110
MSCs loading with nanoparticles111
Hepatocellular carcinomaMSCs carrying an adenovirus112
Treatment of MSCs with melatonin113
Colon cancerMSCs arming with a double fusion gene containing the herpes simplex virus truncated thymidine kinase and firefly luciferase114
Liver cancerIrradiation of endothelial cells115
NeuroblastomaAutologous MSCs carrying an oncolytic adenovirus75
Myelodysplastic syndromeTreatment of MSCs with 5-azacytidine116