Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification

Rina Kansal

Abstract


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and hasan increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologicinformation, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratificationin AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessaryinformation. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. Thecurrently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniquesthat have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some ofthese recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML.

Keywords


Acute myeloid leukemia; myeloid neoplasms; genomics; precision medicine; next-generation sequencing; cytogenetics; mutations

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