The potential for liquid biopsies in the precision medical treatment of breast cancer

Victoria A. Forte, Dany K. Barrak, Mostafa Elhodaky, Lily Tung, Anson Snow, Julie E. Lang


Currently the clinical management of breast cancer relies on relatively few prognostic/predictive clinical markers (estrogenreceptor, progesterone receptor, HER2), based on primary tumor biology. Circulating biomarkers, such as circulating tumor DNA(ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may enhance our treatment options by focusing on the very cells that are the directprecursors of distant metastatic disease, and probably inherently different than the primary tumor's biology. To shift the currentclinical paradigm, assessing tumor biology in real time by molecularly profiling CTCs or ctDNA may serve to discover therapeutictargets, detect minimal residual disease and predict response to treatment. This review serves to elucidate the detection,characterization, and clinical application of CTCs and ctDNA with the goal of precision treatment of breast cancer.


Circulating tumor cells (CTCs); circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA); cell free DNA (cfDNA); biomarker; cancer

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