All-trans Retinoic Acid Induced the Differentiation of Human Glioma Cells

Qing-xi Liu, Nan Wang, Xing-hua Liao, Guang-da Ren, Tao Qin, Ru-fa Yu, Cai-lian Cheng, Guang-cun Liu, Tong-cun Zhang

Abstract


OBJECTIVE    To observe the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on inducing human glioma MO59K cells differentiation and further explore the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS    The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was detected by immunocytochemistry staining. The mRNA levels of GFAP, retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), p21 were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Luciferase activity assay was performed in the COS-7, MO59K cells to measure p21 promoter transcription activity.
RESULTS    ATRA could significantly enhance the expression and mRNA level of GFAP by immunostaining and RT-PCR (P < 0.05). Simultaneously, the mRNA levels of RXRα and p21 were remarkably increased in dose-dependent manner by RT-PCR (P < 0.05). Furthermore, luciferase assay confirmed that ATRA and RXRα could transactivate p21 promoter in COS-7 and glioma cells (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION    ATRA can induce differentiation of human Glioma cells. The RXRα and p21 were activated during ATRA-induced differentiation process. This effect may be caused by directly RXRα-induced p21 gene transactivation. Our findings provide novel evidence for the future studies to explore the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation for glioma cell differentiation and cellular therapeutic approaches for glioblastoma.

 


Keywords


glioma cells, all-trans retinoic acid, Retinoid X

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