Triple negative breast cancer: special histological types and emerging therapeutic methods

Lu Cao, Yun Niu


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a complex and malignant breast cancer subtype that lacks expression of the estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), thereby making therapeutic targetingdifficult. TNBC is generally considered to have high malignancy and poor prognosis. However, patients diagnosed with certainrare histomorphologic subtypes of TNBC have better prognosis than those diagnosed with typical triple negative breast cancer. Inaddition, with the discovery and development of novel treatment targets such as the androgen receptor (AR), PI3K/AKT/mTOR andAMPK signaling pathways, as well as emerging immunotherapies, the therapeutic options for TNBC are increasing. In this paper,we review the literature on various histological types of TNBC and focus on newly developed therapeutic strategies that target andpotentially affect molecular pathways or emerging oncogenes, thus providing a basis for future tailored therapies focused on themutational aspects of TNBC.

Cite this article as: Cao L, Niu Y. Triple negative breast cancer: specialhistological types and emerging therapeutic methods. Cancer Biol Med. 2020;17: 293-306. doi: 10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2019.0465


Triple negative breast cancer; pathological subtype; androgen receptor; immunotherapy; targeted therapy

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